Fishes of Palestine

Subtitle

Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013: A New Freshwater Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine

Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013: A New Freshwater Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine


By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Reference: 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013: A New Freshwater Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 103, July 2013, Ramadan 1434 AH. pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.        http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/palestine-doctor-fish                                      

Abstract:

 

A new subspecies of Doctor Fish of the genus Garra (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve springs and pools, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine is described. This subspecies is distinguished from the other six freshwater subspecies of Garra rufa living in the Middle East by its distinctive body colouration and the smaller size. It is morphologically and geographically distinct from the other six subspecies. The new subspecies was named Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013.

Keywords:


Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Garra rufa wadiqana, Freshwater Fish, Doctor Fish, Palestine Doctor Fish, Wadi Qana Doctor Fish, New Subspecies, Wadi Qana, Nature Reserve, Springs, Pools, Salfit Governorate, Palestine, State of Palestine, Near East, Middle East.

Introduction:


During a field trip to Wadi Qana, which is an important nature reserve in the northern West Bank of the Jordan River, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine, on Monday the 8th July 2013, accompanied by the Palestinian Botanist Banan Al Sheikh, my wife Ola Mostafa Khalaf and my daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf, I inspected Ain Al Basa Spring عين البصة and pools at Wadi Qana وادي قانا , and saw many Doctor Fish (Garra rufa Heckel, 1843) swimming in the spring and pool waters. These fish were observed, examined, measured and photographed.


After examining Garra rufa at Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, I began comparing between the different Middle Eastern Doctor Fish subspecies. There are six Garra rufa freshwater subspecies living in the Middle East: The Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa rufa Heckel, 1843, from southern Turkey, northern Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Oman; and Garra rufa obtusa Heckel, 1843, from northern Syria, northern Iraq and the hot springs at Kangal, Turkey; and Garra rufa turcica Karaman, 1971 from Ceyhan River Basin, Turkey; and the Persian Doctor Fish subspecies Garra rufa persica Berg, 1914 from Iran; and Garra rufa gymnothorax Berg, 1949 from Karun River Basin, Iran; and Garra rufa crenulata Heckel, 1847 from the Qarah Aqaj River and Saadi, Iran.

Description and Distinctive Features

Morphology (Key Characters):


Garra rufa wadiqana has a laterally elongated body shape. Two pairs of barbels are present. The adhesive disc is well developed with a free anterior margin. Abundant mucous cells in the epidermis of the disc gives an oily appearance, and with the dorso-ventrally compressed snout, offers minimal resistance to water currents. Teeth are hooked at the tip. The short gill rakers number 14-26. The upper lip is delicately fimbriated. Scales on lateral line: 29 -38. The dorsal fin has 8 branched rays modally, and the caudal fin 17 branched rays modally. Total vertebrae in the Palestinian specimens 32-37.


Colour:


Overall colour is brownish-olive to dark green with darkly mottled flanks and a yellowish to whitish belly. The head and flanks may be a rusty-red, bronze or golden. A dark or bluish-green band runs along the whole flank ending in a spot on the caudal fin base. Much of the body may be blackish with only the belly creamy. Others are a light olive-green with lime-green highlights giving an iridescent effect especially on upper anterior flank scales. There is a black, greenish-blue, lime-green or dusky-blue spot behind the upper corner of the gill opening, sometimes extending as a bar to the pectoral fin base where the skin is also blue. Fins can be yellowish with darker margins. The pectoral fins can be orange-pink dorsally, grey-white or slightly orange-pink ventrally. The pelvic and anal fins may be orange with the fin rays yellow posteriorly in the anal fin but yellow mesially in the pelvic fin. The bases of the pectoral, pelvic and anal fins are orange-red in breeding males and the caudal fin is orange. The caudal fin can be orange to red ventrally and yellow dorsally. There is a black spot at the caudal fin base and the upper caudal lobe may have a few dark grey spots. The dorsal fin is dark green with reddish pigment at its middle. There is usually a dark spot at the bases of each of the middle 4-5 dorsal fin rays. In some specimens the dorsal fin is orange with yellow posterior rays. The pectoral, dorsal and caudal fin rays may be olive to black rather than yellow or orange. The iris is bright yellow, orange or red (Coad, 2013).


There is variation in colouration. Some fish are pale while others are very dark; the spots on the dorsal fin may extend two-thirds of the way up the fin rather than being restricted to the base; and the flanks may not be mottled. Fish from muddy water are a sickly grey with the body mottled and the lower caudal lobe dark. Their colour darkens and becomes brighter after immersion in ice water. Fish from deep in qanats are very pale (Coad, 2013).


Size:


Garra rufa attains 24 cm total length in the Tigris River in Iraq. Reaches 15.9 cm, over 17 cm according to Heckel (1843). Fish up to 18.5 cm total length are known from Khuzestan, Iran (Coad, 2013). The Palestinian subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 is much smaller and attains a measured length of 5-12 cm. 

Age:


The species Garra rufa can live up to 7 years (Coad, 2013).

Sexual Dimorphism:


Large males become heavily tuberculate on the front and sides of the snout and in a band from the eye to the nostril and across to the other nostril and eye. A deep, tubercle-free groove is apparent between the upper band of tubercles through the nostrils and the tubercles on the snout above the mouth.

Reproduction:


Sexual maturity at 2-3 years, 10 cm in length and a weight of 50 g in Iraqi fish. Spawning took place in May and June with eggs deposited on vegetation and rocks with a relative fecundity up to 542 eggs/g. (Coad, 2013). Ovaries increased in size and weight from May to July. Different individuals release eggs and sperm at different times. Average egg diameter was 0.67 mm, maximum 1.98 mm, with highest diameter in May and the lowest in November. Absolute and relative fecundity were 1179.65 and 109.4 respectively on average. Maximum absolute fecundity reached 3794 eggs. The Iranian Kangir River fish had a maximum fecundity of 13,927 eggs and a maximum relative fecundity of 2345.72 eggs/g. Egg diameters reached 1.7 mm. Reproduction occurred in April-May with the highest average gonadosomatic index for males of 4.21 in April and for females of 7.85 in May (Coad, 2013).


Food:


Garra rufa is omnivorous and feeds on organic detritus, filamentous algae, diatoms, copepods, arthropods and insects. This species is a grazer on aquatic plants, mostly consisting of benthic cyanobacteria, chrysophytes and phytoplankton with included rotifers and protozoans. Both season and location in a stream affects the composition of the diet with season the most important factor.

Habitat:


Found in different habitats such as rivers, lakes, small ponds, and small muddy streams. Hides under and among stones and vegetation. Bottom dweller, feeding on aufwuchs.

Distribution:


The species Garra rufa lives in the Jordan, Ceyhan, Orontes, and Tigris-Euphrates river basins. Also in some coastal rivers in southern Turkey and northern Syria and coastal drainages of the eastern Mediterranean as well as some springs and pools in Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Iran. The Palestinian subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013 is endemic to Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.

Conservation:


Garra rufa is a common species with a wide distribution and is not under any specific threat. The Palestinian subspecies Garra rufa wadiqanaa is endemic to Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, State of Palestine. The Nature Reserve is under protection and the subspecies is officially protected. Illegal Israeli settlements and human waste was observed at Wadi Qana Nature Reserve. More attention and protection is needed to protect the flora and fauna of Wadi Qana from any pollution and destruction. 

Economic Importance:


Garra rufa are sometimes referred to as “doctor fish” because they eat away dead skin found on peoples’ feet, leaving newer skin exposed. They have been used as a medical treatment for individuals with skin diseases, like psoriasis and neurodermitis.

Etymology / Derivation of the Scientific Name:


The Genus name Garra is native from Burma (Myanmar) and means a “big nose”; the rhino horn fish from Burma. The species Latin name rufa means “red”, referring to the reddish body colouration. The Arabic subspecies name wadiqana refers to “Wadi Qana” Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine where the new subspecies was discovered.

Conclusion:


After studying and examining the Garra rufa Fish at Wadi Qana Nature Reserve springs and pools, and comparing with the different Doctor Fish subspecies, and referring to many zoological references, and searching the Internet, I came finally to a conclusion that we are in front of a new Doctor Fish subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve springs and pools, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.


I gave it the scientific name Garra rufa wadiqana, new subspecies. The subspecies name “wadiqana” is for Wadi Qana, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.


Garra rufa wadiqana , new subspecies:

Scientific trinomial name: Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013

Authority: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.

Common Names: Palestine Doctor Fish, Wadi Qana Doctor Fish.

Holotype: Grwq-1, Male, 12.00 cm, Beit Sahour Natural History Museum Collection, Beit Sahour, State of Palestine.

Location: Ain Al Basa Spring, Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine.

Date of capture: 8th July, 2013.

Acknowledgements:


A Special thanks is due to the Palestinian Botanist Mr. Banan Al Sheikh who showed me Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, and to my wife Ola Mostafa Khalaf and my daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf, who both assisted me with the shooting of the photos for this scientific article, and for sharing with me the field trip to Wadi Qana, and gave me the opportunity to discover a new Palestinian Doctor Fish Subspecies. 

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Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage / First Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm
Khalaf, N.A.B. (2005). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). [M.Sc. Dissertation in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv]. In: Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage, August 2005. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 28-93.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine: Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006. pp. 8-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://bassam-ali-taher-khalaf.webs.com/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November 2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_85658724_59480041_deutsch.html
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Zum 1. Todestag : Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / The First Death Anniversary : A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine : Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: Das Palaestinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 62, Februar 2007, Muharram 1428 AH. Seite 11.  Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. http://bassam-ali-taher-khalaf.webs.com/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Palaestina. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit August 2007). Haie – Sharks Yahoo! Deutschland Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Haie_Sharks/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year, September 2007 CE, Sha’ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) caught off the Kuwaiti Coast: The Second Record from the State of Kuwait, Arabian / Persian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/whalesharkinkuwait.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Rhiniodon typus Smith, 1828 or Rhincodon typus Smith, 1829: The Story of a Scientific Name. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 21. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://whale-shark.webs.com/rhiniodontypus.htm
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued near the Tantura Beach, Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First Record from the Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 22-23. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach, Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus 1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from Palestine, East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Ocean_Sunfish.html 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008, Thu Al-Qi’ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/ 

Khalaf, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Zum 3. Todestag : Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / The Third Death Anniversary : A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine : Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 86, Februar 2009, Safar 1430 AH. Seite 21.  Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. http://bassam-ali-taher-khalaf.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). A Longcomb Sawfish (Pristis zijsron Bleeker, 1851) caught off the coast of Dibba, United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 88, April 2009, Rabi’e Al Thani 1430 AH. pp. 1-14. http://dibba-sawfish.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr.Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Blind Cave Fish Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 90, June 2009, Jumada Al-Akhera 1430 AH. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://emirati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Oreochromis mossambicus bassamkhalafi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Mozambique Tilapia Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 92, August 2009, Sha’ban 1430 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://emirati-tilapia.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Bowmouth Guitarfish (Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider, 1801) at Sharjah Aquarium, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological
Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 93, September 2009,
Ramadan 1430 AH. pp. 1-18. http://bowmouth-guitarfish-emirates.webs.com/bowmouthguitarfishuae.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Whale
Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) Records from the United Arab Emirates
between 1989 - 2009. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 –
6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 94, October 2009, Shawal 1430 AH. pp. 1-28.
Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
http://whale-shark.webs.com/whalesharkinemirates.htm Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist : The Scientific References (1980-2009). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013: A New Freshwater Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 103, July 2013, Ramadan 1434 AH. pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/palestine-doctor-fish

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Taxon Profile: Subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013. BioLib.cz. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1059609/

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